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Further Resources

This page contains additional resources for teachers and senior students to further understand circadian rhythms.

Helpful Web Pages

Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms

Circadian Clock in Pancreas Directly Linked to Diabetes from ScienceDaily (June 19, 2010)


HHMI's BioInteractive


How Cancer Cells Loose Their (Circadian) Rhythm from ScienceDaily (May 11, 2010)


New 'Light' On Fascinating Rhythms Of Circadian Clock from ScienceDaily (Feb. 19, 2009)


Jet Lag

Jetting Off Without the Jet Lag from ScienceDaily (June 24, 2010) 


Teenagers and Sleep

Adolescent Sleep Needs and Patterns


Ask the Expert: Sleep and Teens - Biology and Behavior from National Sleep Foundation


Jessa Gamble: Our natural sleep cycle from TED Talks (September, 2010)


Lack of Morning Light Keeping Teenagers Up at Night from ScienceDaily (Feb. 27, 2010)


Report from National Sleep Foundation's (NSF) Sleep And Teens Task Force


Further Resources for Teachers and Senior Students

Cheeseman, J. F., Winnebeck, E. C., Millar, C. D., Kirkland, L. S., Sleigh, J., Goodwin, M., ... Menzel, R. (2012). General anesthesia alters time perception by phase shifting the circadian clock. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 (18), 7061-7066. URL:


Gibson, E. S., Powles, A. C. P., Thabane, L., O'Brien, S., Molnar, D. S., Trajanovic, N., et al. (2006). "Sleepiness" is serious in adolescence: Two surveys of 3235 Canadian students. BMC Public Health, 6(116).


Leger, D., Guilleminault, C., Defrance, R., Domont, A., & Paillard, M. (1999). Prevalence of sleep/wake disorders in persons with blindness. Clinical Science, 97(2), 193-199.


Ludin, N., Cheeseman, J., Merry, A., Millar, C., & Warman, G. (2016). The effects of the general anaesthetic isoflurane on the honey bee (Apis mellifera) circadian clock. Chronobiology International: the journal of biological and medical rhythm research, 33 (1), 128-133. URL:


Millman, R. P., Working Group on Sleepiness in Adolescents/Young Adults, & AAP Committee on Adolescence. (2005). Excessive sleepiness in adolescents and young adults: Causes, consequences, and treatment strategies. Pediatrics, 115(6), 1774-1786.


Poulsen, R. C., Warman, G. R., Sleigh, J., Ludin, N. M., & Cheeseman, J. F. (2018). How does general anaesthesia affect the circadian clock?. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 37, 35-44. URL:


Roenneberg, T., Kuehnle, T., Pramstaller, P. P., Ricken, J., Havel, M., Guth, A., et al. (2004). A marker for the end of adolescence. Current Biology, 14 (24), R1038-1039.


Takahashi, J. S. (2004). Finding new clock components: past and future. J Biol Rhythms, 19(5), 339-347.


Toh, K. L. (2008). Basic science review on circadian rhythm biology and circadian sleep disorders. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 37(8), 662-668.


Vitaterna, M. H., Takahashi, J. S., & Turek, F. W. (2001). Overview of circadian rhythms. Alcohol Res Health, 25(2), 85-93.