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Walking Upright: The Cost of Human Evolution

The learning resources presented in these web pages explore the multiple, interrelated factors that have led to the evolutionary success of the human species.

About the Learning Resources


The development of large brains and relatively long life spans distinguish Hominins from all other Hominoids. The reasons for this development are complex. Multiple interrelated factors have led to the development of intelligence in humans and the success that has accompanied this for the species. Key to understanding evolution is the concept that collectively, adaptive advantage must outweigh adaptive cost for the evolutionary success of a species.

Resource Links


What is Human Evolution?

A page for teachers and senior students summarising the key concepts associated with human evolution. 


Cultural and Biological Evolution

This page explores adaptive advantages and costs of cultural and biological evolution.


Discussion Questions

Resource questions designed to further discussion on the topic of human evolution.

Question and Answer

Challenge Questions

Further questions on the subject of human evolution designed to stimulate more in-depth conversation and learning.


Seminar Recording

An in-stream version of the seminar series the resources on these web pages originate from.



Seminar Paper

Download the seminar paper.



Links to Curriculum and Assessment of Learning

Information for teachers on how these resources link to current curriculum objectives.



Further Resources

Additional resources for teachers to further understand the resources presented in these web pages.